1. 英语学习首页
  2. 英语语法
  3. 代词用法

英语关系代词用法要点

什么叫关系代词?简单地说,它是用于引导定语从句的代词。我们之所以把引导定语从句的代词叫关系代词,是因为它们具有关联作用,能把引导的从句与所修饰的词语联系起来。

1. 意义与用法

什么叫关系代词?简单地说,它是用于引导定语从句的代词。我们之所以把引导定语从句的代词叫关系代词,是因为它们具有关联作用,能把引导的从句与所修饰的词语联系起来。

英语中的关系代词不多,主要有 that, who, whom, whose, which, as 等。其中who, whom 只用于指人,which, as 只用于指物,whose, that 既可于指人也可指物。关系代词在定语从句主要用作主语、宾语、表语或定语。如:

Did you find the pen which you lost? 你的钢笔找到了吗?

句中的which为关系代词,由它引导的定语从句which you lost修饰名词the penwhich在定语从句中用作宾语,它也可以换成that,或省略。

A man who sells books in a shop is called a bookseller. 开店售书的人叫做书商。

句中的who为关系代词,由它引导的定语从句who sells books in a shop修饰名词a manwho在定语从句中用作主语。

2. thatwhich

两者用作关系代词时都可以指物,常可互换。两者的区别是:

(1) 通常要用which的场合:

引导非限制性定语从句时,通常只用which。如:

Water, which is a clear liquid, has many uses. 水是一种清澈的液体,有许多用途。

which在此引导的是非限制性定语从句,故不可换成that

直接放在介词后作宾语时,通常只用which。如:

I admired the patience with which she spoke. 她说话有极大的耐心,我很钦佩。

直接用作介词with之后作宾语,只能用which,不能用that

(2) 通常要用that的场合:

当先行词是much, little, none, all, few, every(thing), any(thing), no(thing) 等不定代词或受其修饰时,通常用that。如:

We haven’t got everything that you ordered. 你要的,我们不是样样都有。

All that remains for me to do is to say goodbye. 剩下我所要做的就是告辞了。

第一句中的定语从句that you ordered修饰不定代词everything,第二句中的定语从句that remains for me to do修饰不定代词all。两个定语从句中的that都不宜换成which

当先行词受the very, the only, the same 等修饰时,通常用that。如:

This is the only example that I know. 我知道的例子只有这一个。

Those are the very words that he used. 那是他的原话。

受定语从句修饰的examplewords前分别有the onlythe very修饰,故要定语从句要用that来引导。另外注意,第二句中的the very不是表示,而是表示正是”“恰是very在此为形容词,而不是副词。

当先行词有形容词最高级或序数词(包括last, next)等修饰时,通常用that。如:

This is the best hotel that I know. 这是我知道的最佳旅馆。

The first thing that you should do is to work out a plan. 你应该做的第一件事是订个计划。

当关系代词在定语从句中用作表语时,通常用that。如:

China is not the country (that) it was. 中国已不是过去的样子了。

that it was为修饰名词the country的定语从句,that在定语从句中用作连系动词was的表语,此时可以省略,但不宜换成which

当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时,通常用that。如:

The train ran over a boy and his dog that were just crossing the track. 火车压死了正穿越轨道的一个男孩和他的狗。

定语从句that were just crossing the track修饰的不只是his dog,而是a boy and his dog,由于它既包含有人也包含物,故用that

当要避免重复时。如:

Which is the car that overtook us? 超过我们的是哪辆车?

由于句首用了which,所以后面修饰the car的定语从句that overtook us要用that来引导,而不用which,目的是为了避免与句首which的重复。

3. thatwho

(1) 互换的场合:两者均可指人,有时可互换。如:

The man that [who] stole your car has been arrested. 偷你汽车的人已经捕获。

用当于all, everyone, everybody, no one, nobodythose后面引导定语从句时,通常用who,其实也可用that。如:

Everyone who [that] knew him liked him. 认得他的人都喜欢他。

Nobody who [that] watched the match will ever forget it. 看了这场比赛的人都不会忘记它。

(2) 通常要用 that的场合:

当先行词是一个既指人又指物的并列词组时。如:

I made a speech on the men and things that I had seen abroad. 我就我在国外所见到的人和事作了报告。

定语从句that I had seen abroad在句中修饰the men and things,故只能用that来引导;如果用who来引导,显然与被修饰的things不匹配。

当先行词是who(为避免重复)。如:

Who is the man (that) you were talking to? 刚才和你讲话的人是谁?

当关系代词在定语从句中作表语时(可省略)。如:

Tom is not the boy (that) he was. 汤姆这孩子已不是以前那个样子了。

原创文章,作者:李熙,如若转载,请注明出处:https://www.mimimao.net/3572.html

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