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如何确定短语动词中代词宾语的位置

■湖南  陈根花  

一、基本规则  

对于“动词+副词”构成的短语动词,若其宾语是代词,则习惯上应将用作宾语的代词置于“动词”与“副词”之间,而不能置于“副词”之后――这是使用“动词+副词”类短语动词的基本规则。  

二、一个小问题  

但是有一个小问题,对于“动词+小品词”这类短语,有时我们必须要弄清跟在动词后面的哪个“小品词”是副词还是介词,如果是“动词+副词”类短语动词,那没问题,若其宾语是代词,则将用作宾语的代词置于“动词”与“副词”之间;但如果是“动词+介词”类短语呢?则不管其宾语是名词还是代词,都只能放在“介词”之后。  

三、举例说明  

针对上面提到的情况,尤其要注意哪些既可用作介词也可用作副词的小品词,如over就是比较典型的一个。比如在 think over 中,over 是副词,所以我们必须说 think it over,而不能说 think over it。如:  

We’ll think it over. 我们将仔细考虑一下。――摘自《牛津实用英语语法》(第四版)  

I’d like to think it over before deciding. 我还是想想再决定吧。――摘自《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》(第四版)  

I was struck dumb by this and had to think it over for a moment. 这让我吃惊得说不出话来,我不得不仔细考虑一会儿。――摘自《柯林斯Cobuild高阶英汉双解学习词典》  

▲但是,在watch over, go over等短语中,over 是介词,所以我们必须说 watch over him, go over it,而不能说成 watch him over, go it over。如:

There must have been an angel watching over me that day. 那天一定是有天使在保佑我。摘自《朗文当代英语辞典》

If they don’t understand it the first time, go over it again until they do. 如果他们第一次未弄懂,就给他们再讲,直到他们弄懂为止。――摘自《朗文当代英语辞典》

四、几个类似的例子  

类似地,在以下各例中,跟在动词后的over也是介词,所以用作宾语的代词均放在了over的后面:  

A wave of sickness came over me. 我感到一阵恶心。――摘自《朗文当代英语辞典》  

Unless I stand over him, he makes all sorts of mistakes. 如果我不监督他,他会出种种错。――摘自《张道真英语语法》  

I’m definitely interested in the house. I’d like to see over it. 我肯定对这所房子感兴趣。我想去看一下这房子。――摘自《牛津实用英语语法》(第四版)  

五、小小拓展  

但值得指出的是,语言现象有时是很复杂的,在某些短语动词搭配中,over有时用作介词,有时用作副词,只是意思不同而已,如get it overget over it  

get it over 指干完(或处理完)不愉快的事(或不爱干的事)。如:  

I will try to get it over with as quickly as possible. 我一定尽快地把它结束。――摘自《薄冰高级英语语法》  

If you have to go to the dentist why not go at once and get it over? 要是必须去看牙医,为什么不马上就去,一了百了呢?――摘自《牛津实用英语语法》(第四版)  

get over it 从不快的经历中恢复过来。如:  

He was, inevitably, upset by her departure, but he soon got over it. 他照常为她的离别而心烦意乱一阵,但不久就恢复过来了。――摘自《朗文当代英语辞典》  

There would be a hurt in her heart for a while, but in the end she would get over it. 她可能会伤心难过一阵子,但最终她会好起来。――摘自《柯林斯Cobuild高阶英汉双解学习词典》  

He was disappointed at not getting the job, but he’ll get over it. 他因没有得到那份工作而大失所望,不过他能想得开。――摘自《牛津高阶英汉双解词典》(第四版)  

注意下面一句中的it为形式宾语(get over 的意思是“向某人讲清某事”“向某人表达某事”):  

I got it over to him that they wouldn’t come. 我给他讲明他们不来了。――摘自《张道真英语语法》   

 

典型陷阱题分析

1. When he realized the police had seen him, the man ______ the exit as quickly as possible.

A. made off                                              B. made for

C. made out                                              D. made up

【陷阱】容易误选A

【分析】正确答案应选Bmake for 意为移向,走向。最具干扰性的选项是A,因为make off 的意思是匆匆逃走。之所以不能选A,是因为 make off 不及物,其后不能接宾语;而 make for 是及物的,其后可以接宾语。另外两个选项的意思是:make out 勉强了解,开出(支票等),成功make up 弥补,虚构,整理,编辑,化妆

2. Now and then they would  ______ our house and have a talk with us.

A. call on                                                 B. drop in at

C. drop in on                                            D. drop in

【陷阱】几个干扰项均容易误选。

【分析】答案应选Bdrop in 意为顺便走访,不预先通知的拜访,为不及物动词,其后不接宾语,若要接宾语,遵循以下原则:表示拜访某人,后接介词on;表示拜访某地,后接介词atcall 表示拜访时也遵循以上原则,即 call at 后接地点,call on 后接人。

 

3. “Why didn’t you write?” “My ink has _______.”

A. used up                                                B. run out of

C. given away                                           D. given out

【陷阱】几个干扰项均容易误选。

【分析】最佳答案为Dgive out 有很多意思,如表示分发,发出(气味、热等),发表,用尽,精疲力竭等,此题取其用尽之义。选项AB很具干扰性,它们均可表示用完,用尽,但是它们是及物的,其后应接宾语。假若将选项A改为been used up 也可以选。

4. I think your health will soon ______ if you have a holiday on the seaside.

A. give up                                                B. pick up

C. take up                                                 D. get up

【陷阱】几个干扰项均容易误选。

【分析】答案选Bpick up 的意思很多,其中一个用法是表示恢复,改进,改善。如:

The weather may pick up. 天气会好转的。

Business is picking up again. 生意又有所好转。

除此之处还可表示拿起,捡起;收拾,整理;学会,获得;(用车)来接,去取;重新开始,继续;感染(疾病、坏习惯等)”等。

其他几个选项的意思分别为:give up 意为放弃take up 意为开始(学习或从事等),继续,占去,接纳,提出get up 意为起床

 

◆最新原创陷阱题(附详解)◆

1. To our surprise the stranger _____ to be an old friend of my mother’s.

A. turned out                                            B. turned up

C. set out                                                  D. set up

2. All the girls swam in the lake except two, who _____ halfway.

A. gave off                                               B. gave up

C. gave away                                            D. gave out

3. If the new arrangement doesn’t _____, we’ll go back to the old one.

A. work over                                            B. work out

C. work up                                               D. work in

4. “Have great changes taken place in your village?” “Yes, A new school was ______ in the village last year.”

A. held up                                                B. set up

C. sent up                                                 D. brought up

5. I had to ______ because someone else wanted to use the phone.

A. give up                                                B. put up

C. hang up                                                D. ring up

原创文章,作者:李熙,如若转载,请注明出处:https://www.mimimao.net/4530.html

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